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Database Provider


University of Richmond


9th, 10th, 11th, 12th


Social Studies, History, Geography

Resource Type

  • Interactive Media

Regional Focus

North America, United States, USA - West, USA - South, USA - Midwest, USA - Northeast, New Jersey, Virginia

Mapping Inequality

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  • This interactive map shows historical data, maps, and remarks around redlining practices in 1940s America. 
  • Students are able to see historic maps for many American cities and counties, the "grades" each section received, and the historical remarks recorded to support those grades. 
Teaching Tips


  • Primary sources and geographical data are woven together to create an engaging and interactive resource.
  • Students can see the redlining that was happening in their area or in areas that they are interested in. 

Additional Prerequisites

  • Slower internet connections may cause a lag in map data loading. 
  • Students should have some background knowledge on redlining. The "Introduction" tab on the top left corner gives a good overview. 


  • Cross-curricular connections can be made in science classes considering how redlining practices impacted current environmental inequalities, and in language arts classes using historical documents in nonfiction reading. 
  • After teaching redlining in general, have students choose a city or area and read the maps and primary documents. Then, have students write or share their findings and how they think this historical inequality impacts people today. 
Scientist Notes
The map depicts the spatial pattern of redlining in US cities and income inequality distribution. Communities with the highest grade tend to be more vulnerable to climate risk. The map has been properly geocoded for use, shapefiles and data layers are accurately digitized and this is recommended for classroom use.
  • College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Standards
    • Dimension 2: Economics
      • D2.Eco.1.9-12 Analyze how incentives influence choices that may result in policies with a range of costs and benefits for different groups.
    • Dimension 2: Geography
      • D2.Geo.2.9-12 Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions and their political, cultural, and economic dynamics.
      • D2.Geo.6.9-12 Evaluate the impact of human settlement activities on the environmental and cultural characteristics of specific places and regions.
    • Dimension 2: History
      • D2.His.1.9-12 Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts.
      • D2.His.14.9-12 Analyze multiple and complex causes and effects of events in the past.
      • D2.His.5.9-12 Analyze how historical contexts shaped and continue to shape people's perspectives.
  • Common Core English Language Arts Standards (CCSS.ELA)
    • Reading: History/Social Studies (6-12)
      • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
      • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.5 Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.
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