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Skew the Script


11th, 12th, AP® / College


Science, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, Engineering

Resource Types

  • Lesson Plan
  • Video, 5 minutes, 34 seconds
  • Video, 3 minutes, 36 seconds, CC, Subtitles
  • Video, 1 minute, 6 seconds, CC, Subtitles
  • Worksheet
  • Interactive Media

Regional Focus

North America, United States, USA - Midwest


Google Docs, PDF, YouTube Video

Interval for One Proportion

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  • This lesson plan allows students to learn about confidence intervals, sample size, and inference using the Flint Water Crisis data available from the EPA and Virginia Tech.
  • The lesson includes an interactive sampling activity using actual data from Flint, critical thinking and problem solving questions, and alignment to AP Statistics topics.
Teaching Tips


  • This lesson plan shows students the importance of data collection and statistical data analysis for human health.
  • Students will enjoy sampling actual data for their analysis.

Additional Prerequisites

  • Teachers and students may create a free account for unlimited access to the materials.
  • The two videos linked in the handout may have ads that play at the beginning.


  • As an extension, lead a classroom discussion on the cause and effects of the Flint Water crisis and have students come up with preventative measures that other municipalities can follow to avoid similar issues.
  • Due to Flint's population being mostly African American, the videos could support a discussion about historical racism in America, systemic racism, and environmental racism.
  • Less advanced students may benefit from this lesson by completing the first 6 problems, with questions 7-9 done as a class.
  • Science and engineering classes could connect this resource to lessons about the scientific method, confidence intervals, chemical reactions, water quality measurements, and the health effects of toxins in the water, air, and soil.
Scientist Notes
This resource investigates the water system in Flint, where students learn how to use random sampling and the inference trifecta to understand current lead levels in Flint's water system and compare results with EPA water quality standards. There are no misconceptions in this resource. Thus, this resource is recommended for teaching.
  • Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)
    • ETS1: Engineering Design
      • HS-ETS1-3 Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
  • College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Standards
    • Dimension 2: Civics
      • D2.Civ.5.9-12 Evaluate citizens' and institutions' effectiveness in addressing social and political problems at the local, state, tribal, national, and/or international level.
  • Common Core Math Standards (CCSS.MATH)
    • Statistics & Probability: Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions (9-12)
      • CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.IC.B.4 Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.
      • CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.IC.B.6 Evaluate reports based on data.
    • Statistics & Probability: Using Probability to Make Decisions (9-12)
      • CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.B.7 Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game).
  • National Health Education Standards
    • Standard 1: Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.
      • 1.12.3 Analyze how environment and personal health are interrelated.
  • Related Resources


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